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Sickle Cell Disease and the Sickle Cell Trait: A Simplified Explainer

September is Sickle Cell Awareness Month. Sickle Cell is a disease that affects approximately 100,000 people in the United States with most of them being Black or African American. It occurs in 1 of every 500 births in the Black or African American community and 1 of every 36,000 of Hispanic-American births.

1. What is Sickle Cell Disease? Imagine your red blood cells as tiny, flexible doughnuts. These cells are your body's couriers, transporting oxygen and fueling your daily activities. However, for individuals with sickle cell disease, these cells undergo a transformation, turning into rigid, misshapen crescents or sickles - hence the name.


2. The Genetic Enigma Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder, meaning it's inherited from your parents. It occurs when you inherit two abnormal genes, one from each parent, responsible for producing hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells crucial for oxygen transport. This genetic hiccup causes your red blood cells to morph into those troublesome sickle shapes.




3. Transportation Transformation Your red blood cells act like a delivery truck delivering life-sustaining oxygen throughout your body. Normal red blood cells can bend and flex to make their way through blood vessels. However, in sickle cell disease, the system doesn’t work that well. Misshapen sickle cells can obstruct your blood vessels, resulting in severe pain and other health issues.




4. Painful Crises A hallmark of sickle cell disease is the "pain crisis." Picture your blood vessels as narrow pipes and these sickle cells as sticky bananas. When these bananas get lodged in the pipes, it causes excruciating pain in the area of the body that is affected, and can last from hours to days or even weeks.

5. Energy Drain Since the sickle-shaped cells can't transport as much oxygen as normal ones, people with sickle cell disease often experience fatigue and lethargy. It's like powering a large machine with a weak battery – your energy quickly depletes. Sickle cells also die earlier than normal red blood cells so there is a constant shortage of red blood cells which worsens the fatigue.



6. Susceptibility to Infections Sickle cell disease can weaken your immune system, making you more vulnerable to infections. For example, people with SCD (especially infants and children) are more likely to experience harmful infections such as the flu, hepatitis and meningitis. This necessitates extra precautions to maintain good health.



7. Other problems Sickle Cell Can Cause Some of the most common complications of SCD include Hand-foot syndrome which is caused by sickle cells getting stuck in the blood vessels of the hands and feet causing swelling and usually fever. In addition, sickling can cause damage to other organs such as the eyes, the chest and can even be a cause of strokes.

8. No Cure, but Treatment Brings Relief While there's no cure for sickle cell disease, treatments are available to alleviate symptoms and complications. These may include pain management, blood transfusions, IV hydration (fluids given through a vein) and, in severe cases, stem cell transplants.

9. Sickle Cell Trait: A Mild Variation Some individuals inherit only one abnormal gene for hemoglobin. This condition is known as the sickle cell trait. It typically causes no symptoms or health problems, but individuals with the trait can be affected if they participate in competitive or team sports. (Find more information at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/traits.html)





10. Leading a Fulfilling Life Remember, sickle cell disease doesn't define a person. Many individuals living with this condition lead vibrant lives by effectively managing their symptoms and seeking medical care as needed. Staying informed, following medical advice, and prioritizing self-care are essential steps in living well with sickle cell disease or understanding the implications of the sickle cell trait. Empathy, support, and better healthcare practices are key to enhancing the lives of those affected by Sickle Cell Disease.


For more information, please visit: www.cdc.gov/sicklecell

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